Thursday, 18 February 2010

Diabetes Type 1 - What You Should Know

Diabetes Type 1 - What You Should Know

Diabetes type 1, also known as the juvenile type of diabetes is a pancreatic abnormality in which the pancreatic cells called the islet of langerhans do not synthesize a hormone called insulin to regulate the amount of sugar present in your blood stream. When the blood sugar continues to elevate overtime, it can eventually lead to some health problems that are considered to be life threatening in the future. It can affect vital organs such are the hear and kidneys along with other organs such as nerves, eyes, gums and teeth. This type of diabetes occurs in pediatric patients or children (Most common onset would be at the age of 9 years old). Other risk factors that would aggrevate this disease to manifest would be mechanical and pathologic trauma of the pancreas in which this organ will no longer fuction properly to secrete insulin like for example, viral infections and auto immune diseases that would cause the body's own antibodies to attack its own pancreatic cells that produces insulin.

The classic triad of this disease are severe hunger(polyphagia) frequent urination (polyuria) and severe thirst (polydipsia). Other manifestations would include: fatigue, wounds that slowly heal, dry itchy skin, tingling sensations in fingers and toes, and dramatic weight loss.

Most often thtan not, most people suffering from type 1 diabetes are likely to experience life threatening manifestations as well that would need prompt medical attention and treatment. When the blood sugar is very high, chances are the patient is likely to experience diabeteic keto acidosis. This is a condition when unmetabolized suger turns to toxic substances known as ketones. These ketones make the blood so acidic that it can damage the organs. Left untreated, it could eventually lead to renal failure and diabetic coma. Signs and symptoms of this complication would include deep rapid breathing, which is also known as kussmauls breathing, dry skin and mouth, flushed skin appearance, acetone or fruity breath, nausea and vomitting and belly aches. The treatment would require a prompt dose of insulin to lower blood sugar.

On the other hand, when the patient is low in sugar, the body will react in a different way. Low blood sugar, also known as hypoglycemia can set in rapidly and it can be just as dangerous as the state when the blood sugar is too high. This occurs when the blood sugar falls below the normal range which is 80 to 120 mg/dl. Manifestations would include headaches, tremors, lightheadedness,hunger, fatigue, heart palpitations and cold sweats. The treatment would include a prompt intake of simple sugars found in fruit juices, or candies. If a patient becomes unconscious, call the doctor for the infusion of needed fluids and sugar.

There is no known permanent cure for this disease. The patient suffering form this condition would need a lifetimes supply of insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. This disease should be strictly managed along with the intake of a proper diet and exercise. It is also necessary to watch out for wounds that slowly heal. Early treatment of the wounds and keeping them clean would prevent complications such as diabetic ulcers.

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